Rebellion & Enlightenment

During the 17th and 18th centuries Scotland underwent significant changes. In 1603 her monarch James VI ascended to the throne of England as James I, allying the two nations; in the 1640s Scotland became embroiled in what is often, but erroneously, called the 'English' Civil War; the Covenanters' struggle for religious freedom led to brutal repression; and the Jacobite Rebellions of 1715 and 1745 divided the country. Despite these upheavals Scotland enjoyed the highest literacy level in Europe, and in the late 18th century Edinburgh was the acknowledged intellectual capital of Europe.
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