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Mining & Quarrying

Coal

Calamites fossil

Period:
Coal Age
Description:

Plant fossil of horsetail stem, Calamites, an internal cast of the stem, showing veins and ridges.

 

Fossils are remains of plants or animals which are preserved in rocks.  These ones are from the carboniferous or Coal Age, 300 million years ago when Upper Nithsdale was below a shallow coral sea, which then drained away leaving the area a marshy coastal jungle.

 

Productive coal measures are the major source of fossils such as these.  They indicate estuary conditions, with the sea slowly receding, and fresh water marshes developing.

 

As this area has long been the scene of mining activity its geological past can be deciphered in great detail.  The first geological survey of the Sanquhar Basin was in 1867, and since then it has been famous for its exposures of fossil layers.

Materials/Media:
sedimentary rock
Dimensions:
length 590mm, width 120mm
Source:
Sanquhar Tolbooth Museum
Accession number:
SQRTM:0206.13
Digital Number:
SQNH001n
Copyright:
Dumfries & Galloway Council